Tag Archive for: transportation

Carnage in the conventional energy sector has drawn a lot of attention in the past few weeks.  But the collapse of recent months was presaged by mediocre performance stretching back literally years.  Total returns for the Standard & Poor Energy Sector for 2019, including dividends, were a paltry 6%.  And for the entire decade of 2010-2019, the same sector was up 34%, by far the worst performance of the 11 sectors S&P tracks.  The fracking revolution, it turns out, created a world awash in oil and gas, but didn’t do much to help the industry that created it.

Which brings us to a related question – if oil & gas are in trouble from COVID-19 and from a decade of overproduction and low prices, what has the ongoing turmoil done to alternative fuels?  In particular, since KC Clean Cities operates in the biofueled, beating heart of the Midwest, what’s happened to biodiesel and (particularly) ethanol?

A bit of backstory:   more than 95% of vehicle gasoline sold in the US is a 10% ethanol blend.  There are several reasons for this.  Until about 15 years ago, a compound known as MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) was blended with gasoline to add oxygen.  As a result, gasoline burned cleaner, and cut smog-forming chemicals and toxins like benzene in exhaust.  But there were problems – MTBE leaked into groundwater from gas station tanks, creating water quality problems.  Moreover, it’s listed as a potential carcinogen.  Enter ethanol, exit MTBE with the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

Like MTBE, ethanol adds oxygen to gasoline and cuts smog-forming emissions.  Unlike MTBE, it’s also a way for America to deal with its massive agricultural surpluses by distilling a value-added product from corn. (It’s worth noting that ethanol now accounts for 40% of all the corn we grow.)

With the Energy Independence & Security Act of 2007, Congress created a mandate that steadily increasing amounts of renewables would be blended into America’s fuel supply – 36 billion gallons by 2022.  This is the Renewable Fuels Standard, which has been hotly debated over the last few years in Washington and elsewhere.

So far so good.  Refineries and fuel importers had a choice – they could blend steadily increasing amounts of renewable fuels.  Or, if they didn’t want to, they could use RINs – Renewable Inventory Numbers – attached to each gallon of renewable fuel produced.  Pecos Pete’s refinery has already hit their required volume of ethanol blended with gasoline for the year, but they keep on blending.  Why?  Because Brownsville Bob’s refinery hasn’t blended any ethanol into their gasoline.  However, Bob can stay in compliance by buying RINs from Pecos Pete, with the price set by the RIN market.

There’s also been a safety valve built into the system, called the Small Refinery Exemption or SRE.  “Small” is relative, but refineries with less than 75,000 barrels per day as of 2006 qualify, and can petition EPA to be excused from renewable fuel blending.  And this is where the fur begins to fly.  Between 2016 and 2018, the EPA granted a total of 85 small refinery exemptions, a big jump that removed a total of 4 billion gallons of mandated demand from the market.  This has been a sore spot with farmers, but hardly the only one.  The ongoing trade war with China has dried up what was a major market for ethanol, corn and distiller’s grain, a byproduct of the ethanol production process used as animal feed.  Allowing year-round sales of E-15 – that is, gasoline that is 15% ethanol by volume hasn’t made much of a dent, since relatively few gas stations sell it even though all light-duty gasoline vehicles 2001 or newer are approved to use E15.

And now, COVID.  Just as Texas and Oklahoma oil producers and refineries don’t have any place left to store their crude and refined products as consumer demand collapses, ethanol producers are running out of storage.  Federal Reserve research shows US ethanol production down nearly 50% since the beginning of 2020.  73 out of 200 total plants nationwide are shut down, while another 71 are on reduced production schedules.  At least two dozen ethanol plants are now producing alcohol for hand sanitizer, but at low volume, much of which will be donated anyway.

For the time being, the sector seems to be shaking its way into stasis.  Whatever shape the ethanol industry takes in 2021 and beyond will depend for now on what the virus does– and how we respond – in 2020.

For additional details on why this matters, please check out our guest blog posting by David VanderGriend of the Urban Air Institute.  Fuel blending standards can sound arcane, and the details of ethanol and corn and agriculture seem like something taking place in distant, rural counties.  They’re not.  They impact the lives of residents of metro Kansas City every day, and at the fundamental level of our own health.

District: Grain Valley School District
Industry: Education
Location: Grain Valley, Missouri
Vehicles: (14) 2018 IC Bus CE Series propane autogas-fueled buses
Fueling: On-site propane autogas station

With aging diesel buses to replace, a Missouri school district looked to alternative fuel options that would save money on fuel and maintenance.

The Grain Valley School District purchased 14 propane school buses. The new buses joined a 49-bus fleet that transports 2,800 students to school from suburban and exurban neighborhoods.

Focus on Cost-Cutting
Over the years Missouri state reimbursements for school transportation have dropped from 75 percent to 16 to 20 percent. School districts in the state have had to tap their own general school funds to make up the shortfall.

To help save money, the Grain Valley district considered alternative fuels for its new school buses and comparing compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane autogas. District representatives attended an alternative fuels workshop hosted by Kansas City Regional Clean Cities, a Metropolitan Energy Center program. The district considered various fuels but “the vehicle costs and fueling station costs for CNG were much higher versus propane,” said Shawn Brady, director of transportation.

The district decided to purchase 14 propane buses in 2018 to replace diesel buses of 2001 and 2002 model years. Brady researched and applied for a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy through Kansas City Regional Clean Cities to assist with the purchase costs of the buses.

Preparing for Propane Autogas
To fuel the new buses, the district entered into a contract with their local propane provider, Ferrellgas. A fueling station with two 1,000-gallon tanks was built in the school district’s bus parking lot in April 2018. “It saves time not to have to travel to refuel,” Brady noted.

Infrastructure costs for propane are the lowest of any fuel; alternative or conventional. For Grain Valley schools, the start-up cost for the fueling station totaled $16,500. “We received a 45 percent grant from Metropolitan Energy Center for the installation of our propane fueling station,” Brady said. The center’s grant amounted to $7,425. “The fueling station cost us only $9,075 after the grant.”

Before putting the new buses on the district’s routes, drivers received training in propane bus operation. “Our bus vendor provided training on how to properly operate the buses and maximize fuel efficiency,” Brady said. The district’s technicians traveled to the bus manufacturer’s factory in Tulsa, Oklahoma, for a complimentary week-long training course on maintenance. The district didn’t need to make changes to its bus repair facility. Requirements for a propane vehicle service facility are generally the same as those for conventionally fueled vehicles.

Financial Benefits
After tapping grants for purchase assistance, each new bus cost about $250 more than a comparable diesel bus. District officials say that the higher initial cost can be quickly recouped in fuel savings.

In fact, by adding propane buses to its fleet, Grain Valley School District has noted savings on both fuel and maintenance. On average, propane autogas costs up to 50 percent less than diesel. As part of its Grain Valley Schools propane bus and fueling setupnegotiated contract, Grain Valley paid a locked-in rate of $1.20 per gallon of propane in 2018-1019. For the 2019-2020 school year, the district pays $1.15 per gallon. For comparison, the district pays $2.31 per gallon on average for diesel.

Each bus in the district runs about 9,000 miles per year. For the 2018-2019 school year, fuel savings amounted to about $14,500. “The district’s increased savings year after year will allow the transportation department to serve as a better steward of taxpayer money,” said Brady.

Additional savings come from the reduced maintenance. With propane autogas, no exhaust after-treatment or diesel emissions fluids are required like with diesel to meet today’s strict emissions regulations. Propane vehicles don’t need particulate trap systems, turbochargers and intercoolers. Plus, propane uses less engine oil. All these factors contribute to the overall savings of time and money. The district’s technicians like the propane buses, Brady reports. “There are fewer parts and systems to have to maintain.”

However, Brady explained that “warranty work is challenging with no established shop in Kansas City.” He noted that IC does provide a traveling technician who assists his staff when they encounter maintenance issues. Kansas City Regional Clean Cities recommends fleet managers ensure that there is a local service shop to do warranty and continuing work on buses before purchasing.

Even more saving shows up for the district in the winter. Due to the chemical properties of propane autogas, the propane buses warm up faster and have no cold start issues. Unlike diesel vehicles, these buses can start up in temperatures as low as -40 degrees Fahrenheit. School districts report lower electric costs because the propane buses don’t rely on block heaters. “Our propane buses warmed up faster this past winter than the diesel buses,” Brady said.

Beyond the Bottom Line 

Grain Valley’s propane buses are helping the community’s air quality. Unlike diesel buses, propane vehicles emit virtually no particulate matter and, with substantially less nitrogen oxides (NOx). Buses fueled by propane also emit fewer greenhouse gases and total hydrocarbon emissions when compared to diesel buses. Propane’s quiet operation makes riding the bus more pleasant for passengers and safer for drivers, who are less distracted by engine noise. “We’ve benefitted from much cleaner air and much quieter buses running through neighborhoods,” said Brady.

Drivers also report that the propane dispenser pumps are just as fast or faster than the diesel fuel pump when it’s time to fill the tank. The district notes that it will be sure to order buses with 100-gallon fuel tanks going forward. “These were not available from IC when we placed our first order,” Brady said.

The district’s leadership in adopting an alternative fuel earned it a 2018 Agent of Change Award from the Metropolitan Energy Center, a Kansas City nonprofit catalyst for energy efficiency, economic development and environmental vitality.

The district’s plan to purchase seven more propane buses this year, and eventually move to an all-propane fleet, speaks to the administration’s belief in the benefits of this alternative fuel for their students, drivers and overall community.

“Our district made the decision on propane buses to save money. The environmental impact is an added benefit. There’s no reason to not make the move into propane now,” Brady said.


About MOPERC: The Missouri Propane Education & Research Council is a not-for-profit organization authorized by the Missouri Legislature. Dedicated to propane education and public awareness, MOPERC provides industry training, consumer safety, appliance rebates and market development programs. The council is composed of 15 volunteer directors and adm inistered by an executive staff. Visit PropaneMissouri.com.

For fiscal year 2019 (July 2018 through June 2019), the Missouri Department of Natural Resources will fund $2.75 million in government truck repower and replacement projects.

Implementation Guidelines

Deadline:  Monday Dec. 31, 2018 at 5 p.m. CST.

Eligibility:  Qualifying applicants include government agencies that own eligible trucks:  “Government” shall mean a State or local government agency.  This category includes a school district, municipality, city, county, special district, transit district, joint powers authority, or port authority, owning fleets purchased with government funds.  It also includes a tribal government or native village. The term “State” means the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

Key Program Requirements:

  • Eligible engine model years 1992-2009.
  • Eligible vehicles are Class 4-8 with GVWR greater than 14,000 pounds.
  • Older engine or vehicle must be permanently disabled.
  • New diesel, biodiesel, CNG, propane and all-electric engines are all eligible for funding.
  • The program provides up to 75% of the cost of an engine repower.
  • The program provides up to 50% of the cost of a new vehicle.
  • For this round, maximum request from a single applicant is $1 million.
  • Applications submitted through modnr.force.com.

Wed, May 23 | 2:30 pm | Project Living Proof | 917 Emmanuel Cleaver II Blvd, KCMO

Kansas City Regional Clean Cities is hosting a grant workshop on three new funding opportunities totaling more than $140 million nationwide. These programs cover diesel emissions reduction, low- and zero-emission transit fleets, and infrastructure and super-fast charging, plus other projects. We’ll cover eligibility, the application process, financial and cost-share requirements, and much more in this free workshop.

All interested potential grant applicants are cordially invited to participate. This includes state and local governments, transit agencies, MPOs, non-profit organizations and school districts. Although for-profit companies are not eligible to apply directly for these grants, Clean Cities routinely works with our corporate fleet members to administer grants for their projects. Interested businesses are welcome to attend.

Join us in person at Project Living Proof, or attend virtually via GoToMeeting or telephone at (646)749-3122, Access Code: 448-679-701. If attending in person, please park at the Anita Gorman Discovery Center, 4750 Troost Avenue, Kansas City, MO, then follow the boardwalk north to PLP’s back door.

For questions or to RSVP for the workshop, email David Albrecht or call (816) 531-7283.



The Missouri EV Collaborative held its second spring meeting on April 17th at City Hall in Columbia, MO. There was plenty of discussion among municipal fleet and Clean Cities representatives from Missouri, Nebraska, Iowa and Illinois. The VW Settlement, clean fuel corridors and the nuts and bolts of EV charging were all hot topics.

Above – Transit Manager Drew Brooks Lays Out The Layout Of An EV Bus

The really fun part, though, came at the end of the day, when attendees headed out for a test ride on one of nine all-electric transit buses run by the city’s transit authority. GoCOMO now operates nine battery-powered buses, with four more ordered. The bus, California-built but designed by China’s BYD, provided a remarkably quiet ride around town as Parking & Transit Manager Drew Brooks talked about tech, testing and transitioning to EV bus service.

The City runs the buses under a lease-to-own agreement as part of GoCOMO’s budget. Along with local funding, a $1.7 million grant from the Federal Transit Administration is helping to cover the cost of electrical upgrades, consulting and three of the four EV buses still on order. The cost difference between all-electric buses and conventional models is still substantial, though EV prices are falling. This means that ROI in through fuel savings is very much a long-term proposition. However, there’s one area where the electric buses paid for themselves immediately – maintenance. Normal quarterly maintenance for a diesel bus runs in the neighborhood of $1,300. But an EV bus, without fuel or oil; in fact, lacking nearly all of the moving, greasy parts found in a diesel bus – runs about $300 per maintenance check.

According to Brooks, BYD’s support team engaged well before a single wheel turned in mid-Missouri. Along with background information on local weather and passenger counts, route mapping was vital to the rollout.   This included special attention to the maximum grades on each route. This information was then programmed into the computer on each bus before delivery to cut the odds of running out of juice. Although different drivers can and do make a difference with how many miles a given bus can run between charges, range hasn’t really been a serious issue.

Above – Drew takes questions on the road; on right, KCMO Sustainability Coordinator Gerry Shechter.

One notable physical difference during our drive around town – the lack of noise, something that’s made the EV buses popular among riders. Drew stood up front, taking questions in a voice just slightly louder than normal conversational tone, something that would be impossible in a diesel bus. There may have been 75 horses tied to each rear axle, but you couldn’t really tell from the passenger seat.

Join us at the last of our four events in Kansas on October 3rd to learn about the Volkswagen Settlement and what it means to fleets in the state of Kansas. At each event, we’ll provide the latest information, a forum for discussion, and give you tools to participate in decision-making for the state’s plan for its $15 million share of the VW Environmental Mitigation Trust.

MEC and Kansas City Clean Cities encourage all stakeholders in Kansas to let their views be known on this important settlement.  This includes private-sector fleet operators, school district transportation directors, public works and public transportation professionals, along with transportation contractors, alternative energy providers and elected officials.  We’re hosting this event to let you know about what’s at stake – and we need you to let the agencies in charge of the settlement what direction you think the state should take.

Join us at Wichita State University Old Town, 238 North Mead in Wichita Kansas, 672025

Click here for parking information.  To register for this event, just click here to sign up through EventBrite.



UMKC turns on the juice for recycling

By Jerry LaMartina
Metropolitan Energy Center, freelance writer

Chances are, Thomas Edison would’ve flashed his bulb at the University of Missouri-Kansas City’s choice of a truck to pick up recycling materials and deliver building supplies.

It’s a Newton, made by Smith Electric Vehicles.

UMKC put the truck into service in December 2010, with help from a Clean Cities grant of $111,000 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The money UMKC received was part of a $15 million Clean Cities grant awarded in December 2009. The overall grant also benefited several municipalities and companies in the Kansas City area and elsewhere that had implemented alternative-fuel projects. The grant was administered by Kansas City-based Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC) through a contract with the DOE. All the projects supported by the grant constitute MEC’s Midwest Region Alternative Fuels Project.

The UMKC project’s overall cost was $157,000, which included the electric truck and one electric-vehicle charging station on the university’s campus for public use. UMKC matched the Clean Cities grant with about $46,000 of its own money, says Henry Marsh, UMKC’s fleet manager. The public charging station went into service in April 2011. UMKC has since added three others.

“We wanted to start an electric infrastructure for people to charge their cars,” Marsh says.

UMKC puts an average of about 4,500 miles a year on its service vehicles, mostly with stop-and-go driving. The Newton, which replaced a gasoline-fueled truck, has displaced about 900 gallons of gas a year since UMKC put it into service.

“An electric truck is perfect for this kind of driving,” UMKC said in its final report to the DOE. The truck does not require any warm up to be efficient.”

Marsh says he’d been familiar with electric trucks when he attended an alternative-fuels conference.

“I saw an electric truck on display and I thought this would be a perfect application for our purposes,” he says.

The Newton’s drivers think of it as “a new toy,” Marsh says. Their only complaint has been that it’s too slow going up hills when fully loaded, but it gets the job done even then, he says.

Marsh has gotten calls from two universities in other states with questions about the Newton and how it’s been working out for UMKC.

“According to Smith Electric, we were the first university in the nation to buy one of their electric vehicles,” he says.

His advice to those thinking of buying an electric vehicle is, first, consider carefully how it will be used, and make sure its capabilities match the intended use. The truck is expensive, he says, “and if we had to buy that truck outright, the monetary payback would’ve been hard to justify.”

“There are fleets that are a lot bigger than ours, and they can see and measure a payback on it,” Marsh says.

That money savings, which takes time to achieve, plus the sustainability issue and the evolving electric technology itself will drive increased use of electric vehicles, he says.


MUD’s rolling around in the CNG

By Jerry LaMartina
Metropolitan Energy Center

The Metropolitan Utilities District of Omaha is used to going it alone and forming partnerships when it comes to adopting and expanding its use of alternative fuels.

MUD first started using natural gas vehicles (NGVs) and compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling equipment in its operations in the early 1980s. NGVs include vehicles fueled by CNG and by liquefied natural gas.

At the end of 2013, MUD had more than 150 vehicles fueled by CNG, or roughly 40 percent of its 375-vehicle fleet.

One of its recent CNG expansions came in the form of 42 CNG vehicles and two CNG fueling stations, funded in part from $1.6 million awarded to it and several partners from a $15 million U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities grant awarded in December 2009. The overall grant also benefited several other municipalities and companies for alternative-fuel projects and was administered by Kansas City-based Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC) for the DOE. All the projects supported by the grant constitute MEC’s Midwest Region Alternative Fuels Project.

Mike Corrigan, MUD’s natural gas vehicle specialist, says the utility’s watchwords are environmental, economic and energy-independent. The economic leg of that stool showed itself in 2008 when fuel prices rose. This prompted MUD’s customers to ask the public utility about adding a public-access CNG station, Corrigan says.

“We’ve traditionally generated our revenue based on household and residential use, both of which have been declining, so we were looking toward other revenue sources,” he says. “Before 2008 or 2009, it wasn’t viable to move toward an increased percentage of CNG vehicles in our fleet, because of financial limitations and limited vehicle systems availability.”

Now, though, he thinks he’ll eventually see his whole fleet switch to CNG. MUD has added more than 40 CNG vehicles since this Clean Cities-funded project, all without grant funding.

Corrigan embraces CNG mainly because “it’s clean and it’s American.”

“At the end of the day, I’m glad to tell my kids that I’m doing something to reduce our emissions and reduce our dependence on foreign oil,” he says.

Those environmental and energy-independence concerns, along with economic ones, are common motivators for those who consider making the switch to alternative fuels.

“There’s a quandary of the chicken and the egg,” Corrigan says. “Do you build stations first or get CNG vehicles first?”

His advice is to first do market development by joining with facilitators and partners.

“You need to have a commitment from an anchor fleet before you start building a station,” he says.

Along with that, MUD spends a lot of time and energy reaching out to fleets, and teaching technicians and dealerships about what’s required to move to CNG.

MUD’s partners and their projects in this Clean Cities grant:
• Happy Cab Co. of Omaha bought 54 CNG taxi cabs and one CNG tow truck, and leased space to MUD for one of its public CNG stations.
• Metropolitan Community College of Omaha bought one CNG service van and one security pickup, and installed one private CNG fueling station.
• O’Daniel Honda of Omaha installed one CNG fueling station after having started selling and servicing CNG Honda models in 2009.
• Lincoln Airport Authority in Lincoln, Neb., bought six CNG pickups and one SUV, and installed one public CNG fueling station.
• Black Hills Energy of Lincoln joined as a project partner after supplement funding became available. It installed a public CNG station at its headquarters.

All of these partners have expanded their use of CNG vehicles beyond what was funded by this Clean Cities grant, Corrigan says, and they’ve done so with no federal funds, “which demonstrates that the market for CNG vehicles has become viable and sustainable.”



Kansas City, Missouri fleet’s cookin’ with gas – natural gas

By Jerry LaMartina
Metropolitan Energy Center

The City of Kansas City, Missouri’s fleet has been running on fumes of one kind or another for quite some time.

These days, though, an increasing portion of them come from compressed natural gas (CNG). The city has 275 CNG-fueled vehicles. That means about 12 percent of its roughly 2,400-vehicle fleet runs on CNG.

Sam Swearngin knows CNG. Swearngin’s worked with CNG since 1997.

Gasoline and diesel: You’re no CNG.

Swearngin is Kansas City’s fleet administrator. His latest CNG effort on the city’s behalf came in the form of 174 CNG vehicles, purchased with the help of a $4 million from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities grant awarded in December 2009, and $9 million supplied by the city. The grant money was part of a $15 million Clean Cities grant, which also benefited several other municipalities and companies in the Kansas City area and elsewhere that had implemented alternative-fuels projects. Kansas City-based Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC) administered the grant through a contract with the DOE. All the projects supported by the grant constitute MEC’s Midwest Region Alternative Fuels Project.

The city started putting the 174 CNG vehicles into service in March 2010 and put the last vehicle into service in February 2013. Some of the vehicles came CNG-ready from the factory, and then were given final modifications at a local dealership. Others arrived ready to hit the ground.

The new CNG vehicles – and all the others in the city’s fleet – will have access to a new fueling station, at 5300 Municipal Drive in Kansas City, Mo. The city expects the station to be operational by May, Swearngin says. It will be the city’s sixth CNG station.

The city contracted with Clean Energy Fuels Corp., based in Newport Beach, Calif., to build, install and maintain the station at its own expense. The station’s construction and installation cost just over $2 million. It’s expected to be operational by May, Swearngin says.

The city in turn will pay Clean Energy Fuels to offset the station’s construction and maintenance costs through a fuel surcharge of $1 per gas gallon equivalent (gge). The city entered its contract with Clean Energy Fuels because the cost to build and maintain the station was more than the city wanted to spend, he says.

But, the city also wants to save money in the longer term. Who doesn’t?

“In the last two fiscal years, the city saved $1 million in fuel costs by using CNG instead of diesel,” Swearngin says.

That savings came mainly from the city’s use of CNG to power its heavy-duty trucks, and the buses used at Kansas City International Airport. The city’s fleet, excluding the KCI buses, uses from 25,000 to 28,000 gge of CNG each month, roughly double the volume it used four years ago, Swearngin says. The KCI buses use an additional 33,000 gge a month.

In 2008, the city consolidated its fleet fueling, enabling it to better track how much money it’s saving by using alternative fuels, Swearngin says. The city wants to add three more CNG stations, but no money has been allocated from the most recent Clean Cities grant.

The city’s whole effort toward using cleaner, less-expensive fuel started with a CNG pilot program in 1997 with 12 CNG vehicles and a partnership with Missouri Gas and Energy to refuel at MGE’s stations. Many more CNG-powered vehicles have hit the ground since then, along with CNG fueling stations and electric charging stations.

And the city has taken leadership in helping other Kansas City-area fleets get their CNG legs.

“We facilitate other fleets in the Kansas City area going over to CNG,” Swearngin says. “Kansas City, Kansas Public Schools filled their buses up with us. Lee’s Summit School District did, too. We try to help other fleets until they get their own stations up.”

The reasons for putting all this time, energy and money into alternative fuels are clear, Swearngin says.

“First and foremost, we do it for air-quality reasons,” he says. “Kansas City’s got a low-level ozone problem like all other cities. Number two, if we’re smart about it, it really saves a lot of money in fuel costs, especially for the big trucks. And the third reason is risk management. It lowers our energy-security risk, because while we like to think we’re getting close to energy independence, we’re not. We’re dependent on imports, and that leads to price and supply volatility. We can avoid that because CNG is a domestic source of energy.”

And, all these efforts help to lower human beings’ carbon footprint, he says.

“We can say now that global warming is real and it’s being made worse by human activity on the planet.”


Tag Archive for: transportation

Nothing Found

Sorry, no posts matched your criteria